- API service HA using haproxy and Pacemaker
- Active/active DHCP HA
- Router high availability
- What the SUSE and Red Hat solutions look like
I recently gave an internal talk about Neutron troubleshooting and wanted to share it with the world. Here’s the slide deck and video, enjoy!
It’s time for OpenStack projects to take ownership of their quality. Introducing in-tree, whitebox multinode simulated integration testing. A lot of work went in over the last few months by a lot of people to make it happen.
We plan on adding integration tests for many of the more evolved Neutron features over the coming months.
Nir Yechiel and I submitted a session titled: ‘L3 HA, DVR, L2 Population… Oh My!’
If you’re interested in Neutron’s vision of routing and the integration of various router types, vote for our session here: https://www.openstack.org/summit/tokyo-2015/vote-for-speakers/Presentation/5802
See you in Tokyo!
Legacy routers provide floating IPs connectivity by performing 1:1 NAT between the VM’s fixed IP and its floating IP inside the router namespace. Additionally, the L3 agent throws out a gratuitous ARP when it configures the floating IP on the router’s external device. This is done to advertise to the external network that the floating IP is reachable via the router’s external device’s MAC address. Floating IPs are configured as /32 prefixes on the router’s external device and so the router answers any ARP requests for these addresses. Legacy routers are of course scheduled only on a select subgroup of nodes known as network nodes.
In the DVR world, however, things are very different. This is going to get very complicated very fast so let’s understand how and why we got there. We could have kept things the way they are and configured floating IPs on the router’s ‘qg’ device. Or could we? Let’s consider that for a moment:
Let’s jump ahead and see how everything is wired up (On compute nodes):
When a floating IP is attached to a VM, the L3 agent creates a FIP namespace (If one does not already exist) for the external network that the FIP belongs to:
[stack@vpn-6-21 devstack (master=)]$ ip netns fip-cef4f7b4-c344-4904-a847-a9960f58fb20 qrouter-ef25020f-012c-41d6-a36e-f2f09cb8ea62
As we can see the fip namespace name is determined by the ID of the external network it represents:
[stack@vpn-6-21 devstack (master=)]$ neutron net-show public ... | id | cef4f7b4-c344-4904-a847-a9960f58fb20 | ...
Every router on the compute node is hooked up to the FIP namespace via a veth pair (Quick reminder: A veth pair is a type of Linux networking device that is represented by a pair of devices. Whatever goes in on one end leaves via the other end. Each end of the pair may be configured with its own IP address. Veth pairs are often used to interconnect namespaces as each end of the pair may be put in a namespace of your choosing).
The ‘rfp’ or ‘router to FIP’ end of the pair resides in the router namespace:
[stack@vpn-6-21 devstack (master=)]$ sudo ip netns exec qrouter-ef25020f-012c-41d6-a36e-f2f09cb8ea62 ip address ... 3: rfp-ef25020f-0: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1500 qdisc pfifo_fast state UP group default qlen 1000 link/ether 16:91:f5:0b:34:50 brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff inet 169.254.31.28/31 scope global rfp-ef25020f-0 inet 192.168.1.3/32 brd 192.168.1.3 scope global rfp-ef25020f-0 ... 52: qr-369f59a5-2c: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1500 qdisc noqueue state UNKNOWN group default link/ether fa:16:3e:33:6d:d7 brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff inet 18.104.22.168/24 brd 22.214.171.124 scope global qr-369f59a5-2c ... 53: qr-c2e43983-5c: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1500 qdisc noqueue state UNKNOWN group default link/ether fa:16:3e:df:74:6c brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff inet 10.0.0.1/24 brd 10.0.0.255 scope global qr-c2e43983-5c ...
While the ‘fpr’ or ‘FIP to router’ end of the pair resides in the FIP namespace, along with the ‘fg’ / external device:
[stack@vpn-6-21 devstack (master=)]$ sudo ip netns exec fip-cef4f7b4-c344-4904-a847-a9960f58fb20 ip a 1: lo: <LOOPBACK,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 65536 qdisc noqueue state UNKNOWN group default ... 3: fpr-ef25020f-0: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1500 qdisc pfifo_fast state UP group default qlen 1000 link/ether 3e:d3:e7:34:f6:f3 brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff inet 169.254.31.29/31 scope global fpr-ef25020f-0 ... 59: fg-b2b77eed-1b: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1500 qdisc noqueue state UNKNOWN group default link/ether fa:16:3e:cc:98:c8 brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff inet 192.168.1.23/24 brd 192.168.1.255 scope global fg-b2b77eed-1b ...
As you’ve surely noticed, the rfp and fpr are configured with link local IP addresses. Every time a router is configured on a compute node and hooked up to the FIP namespace in case a floating IP was configured on said router, a pair of free IP addresses is allocated out of a large pool of 169.254.x.y. These allocations are then persisted locally on the node’s disk in case the agent or the node decide to do the unthinkable and reboot.
Before we track a packet as it leaves a VM, let’s observe the routing rules in the router namespace:
[stack@vpn-6-21 devstack (master=)]$ sudo ip netns exec qrouter-ef25020f-012c-41d6-a36e-f2f09cb8ea62 ip rule 0: from all lookup local 32766: from all lookup main 32767: from all lookup default 32768: from 10.0.0.4 lookup 16 167772161: from 10.0.0.1/24 lookup 167772161 335544321: from 126.96.36.199/24 lookup 335544321
Huzzah, a new source routing rule! This time it’s a specific rule with our VM’s fixed IP address. You’ll notice that it has a lower (Better) priority than the generic rules that follow. We’ll expand on this in a moment.
In the previous blog post we talked about classifying east/west and SNAT traffic and forwarding appropriately. Today we are joined by a third traffic class: Floating IP traffic. SNAT and floating IP traffic is differentiated by the ip rules shown above. Whenever a floating IP is configured by a L3 agent it adds a rule specific to that IP: It adds the fixed IP of the VM to the rules table, and a new routing table (In this example ’16’):
[stack@vpn-6-21 devstack (master=)]$ sudo ip netns exec qrouter-ef25020f-012c-41d6-a36e-f2f09cb8ea62 ip route show table 16 default via 169.254.31.29 dev rfp-ef25020f-0
If VM 10.0.0.4 (With floating IP 192.168.1.3) sends traffic destined to the outside world, it arrives in the local qrouter namespace and the ip rules are consulted just like in the SNAT example in the previous blog post. The main routing table doesn’t have a default route, and the ‘32768: from 10.0.0.4 lookup 16′ rule is matched. The routing table known as ’16’ has a single entry, a default route with 169.254.31.29 as the next hop. The qrouter iptables NAT rules apply and the source IP is replaced with 192.168.1.3. The message is then forwarded with 169.254.31.29’s MAC address via the rfp device, landing squarely in the FIP namespace using its ‘fpr’ device. The FIP namespace routing table has a default route, and the packet leaves through the ‘fg’ device.
The opposing direction is similar, but there’s a catch. How does the outside world know where is the VM’s floating IP address: 192.168.1.3? In fact, how does the fip namespace know where it is? It has an IP address in that subnet, but the address itself is a hop away in the qrouter namespace. To solve both problems, proxy ARP is enabled on the ‘fg’ device in the FIP namespace. This means that the FIP namespace will answer ARP requests for IP addresses that reside on its own interfaces, as well as addresses it knows how to route to. To this end, every floating IP is configured with a route from the FIP namespace back to the router’s namespace as we can see below:
[stack@vpn-6-21 devstack (master=)]$ sudo ip netns exec fip-cef4f7b4-c344-4904-a847-a9960f58fb20 ip route default via 192.168.1.1 dev fg-b2b77eed-1b 169.254.31.28/31 dev fpr-ef25020f-0 proto kernel scope link src 169.254.31.29 192.168.1.0/24 dev fg-b2b77eed-1b proto kernel scope link src 192.168.1.23 192.168.1.3 via 169.254.31.28 dev fpr-ef25020f-0
When the outside world wants to contact the VM’s floating IP, the FIP namespace will reply that 192.168.1.3 is available via the fg’s device MAC address (An awful lie, but a useful one… Such is the life of a proxy). The traffic will be forwarded to the machine, in through a NIC connected to br-ex and in to the FIP’s namespace ‘fg’ device. The FIP namespace will use its route to 192.168.1.3 and route it out its fpr veth device. The message will be received by the qrouter namespace: 192.168.1.3 is configured on its rfp device, its iptables rules will replace the packet’s destination IP with the VM’s fixed IP of 10.0.0.4 and off to the VM the message goes. To confuse this business even more, gratuitous ARPs are sent out just like with legacy routers. Here however, the floating IP is not actually configured on the ‘fg’ device. This is why it is configured temporarily right before the GARP is sent and removed right afterwards.
A quick reminder about two NAT types used in Neutron.
DVR distributes floating IPs north/south traffic to the compute node, just as it does for east/west traffic. This will be explained in the next blog post. SNAT north/south traffic, however, is not distributed to the compute nodes, but remains centralized on your typical network nodes. Why is this? Intuitively, you’re going to need an address from the external network on every node providing the SNAT service. This quickly becomes a matter of balance – How far would you like to distribute SNAT vs consumption of addresses on your external network(s)? The approach that was chosen is to not distribute the SNAT service at all, but keep it centralized like legacy routers. The next step would be to make the SNAT portion of distributed routers highly available by integrating DVR with L3 HA, and this work is planned for the Liberty cycle.
Note that the router has two ports in each internal network. This is an implementation detail that you can safely ignore for now and will be explained later.
After attaching the router to an external network, the SNAT portion of the router is scheduled amongst L3 agents in dvr_snat mode. Observing the dvr_snat machine:
[stack@vpn-6-22 devstack (master=)]$ ip netns snat-ef25020f-012c-41d6-a36e-f2f09cb8ea62 qrouter-ef25020f-012c-41d6-a36e-f2f09cb8ea62
We can see that two namespaces were created for the same router. The ‘regular’ qrouter namespace, which is identical to the namespace created on compute nodes and is used to service VM, DHCP or LB ports on that machine, and the ‘snat’ namespace, which is used for the centralized SNAT service. Let’s dive deeper in to this new SNAT namespace:
[stack@vpn-6-22 devstack (master=)]$ sudo ip netns exec snat-ef25020f-012c-41d6-a36e-f2f09cb8ea62 ip address 1: lo: <LOOPBACK,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 65536 qdisc noqueue state UNKNOWN group default ... 101: sg-1b9c9c26-38: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1500 qdisc noqueue state UNKNOWN group default link/ether fa:16:3e:a3:ef:a9 brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff inet 10.0.0.3/24 brd 10.0.0.255 scope global sg-1b9c9c26-38 ... 102: qg-8be609d9-e3: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1500 qdisc noqueue state UNKNOWN group default link/ether fa:16:3e:93:cb:37 brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff inet 192.168.1.21/24 brd 192.168.1.255 scope global qg-8be609d9-e3 ... 104: sg-fef045fb-10: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1500 qdisc noqueue state UNKNOWN group default link/ether fa:16:3e:de:85:63 brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff inet 188.8.131.52/24 brd 184.108.40.206 scope global sg-fef045fb-10 ...
We can see two new ‘sg’ devices in the SNAT namespace, and the familiar ‘qg’ / external device (Which is not present in the qrouter namespces). Where did these ‘sg’ devices come from? These are additional ports, one for each internal network the router is connected to. This is why the router now has two ports in every internal network, the ‘qr’ device on compute nodes, and the ‘sg’ device in the SNAT namespace. These ‘sg’ ports are used as an extra hop during VM SNAT traffic.
When a VM without a floating IP sends traffic destined to the outside world, it hits the qrouter namespace on its node, which redirects the message to the SNAT namespace. To achieve this, some source routing trickery is used. Here’s a concise source routing tutorial. Now that you are familiar with ‘ip rule’, the idea of multiple routing tables and source routing, let’s move on!
Let’s observe the ‘ip rule’ output executed from within the qrouter namespace on the compute node:
[stack@vpn-6-21 devstack (master=)]$ sudo ip netns exec qrouter-ef25020f-012c-41d6-a36e-f2f09cb8ea62 ip rule 0: from all lookup local 32766: from all lookup main 32767: from all lookup default 167772161: from 10.0.0.1/24 lookup 167772161 335544321: from 220.127.116.11/24 lookup 335544321
It looks like there’s source routing rules setup for every subnet the router is attached to. Let’s look at the main routing table, as well as the new routing tables:
[stack@vpn-6-21 devstack (master=)]$ sudo ip netns exec qrouter-ef25020f-012c-41d6-a36e-f2f09cb8ea62 ip route 10.0.0.0/24 dev qr-c2e43983-5c proto kernel scope link src 10.0.0.1 18.104.22.168/24 dev qr-369f59a5-2c proto kernel scope link src 22.214.171.124
[stack@vpn-6-21 devstack (master=)]$ sudo ip netns exec qrouter-ef25020f-012c-41d6-a36e-f2f09cb8ea62 ip route show table 167772161 default via 10.0.0.3 dev qr-c2e43983-5c
[stack@vpn-6-21 devstack (master=)]$ sudo ip netns exec qrouter-ef25020f-012c-41d6-a36e-f2f09cb8ea62 ip route show table 335544321 default via 126.96.36.199 dev qr-369f59a5-2c
We can observe that 10.0.0.3 and 188.8.131.52 are the ‘sg’ devices for the same router in the SNAT namespace on the dvr_snat node.
How then is east/west traffic and SNAT traffic classified and routed? If a VM in the 10.0.0.0/24 subnet on the local compute node pings a remote VM in the 184.108.40.206/24, we’d expect that to get classified as east/west traffic and go through the process explained in the previous blog post. The source guest OS puts 20.0.0.x in the destination IP and the MAC address of its default gateway in the packet and frame respectively. br-int forwards the message to the qrouter namespace on the local node, and the namespace’s ip rules are consulted. ip rules are processed according to their priority (Lowest to highest), which is listed in the first column in the ‘ip rule’ output above. The main routing table has an entry for 220.127.116.11/24 thus the message is forwarded out the appropriate ‘qr’ device.
If the same VM ping’d 18.104.22.168, however, it’d be a different story. The main routing table would be consulted first, however, it cannot match 22.214.171.124, and the main routing table doesn’t have a default route. Let’s take another look at the routing rules in place: The main routing table was consulted but did not hit a match. The ‘default’ table is empty. Can we match any of the remaining rules? Of course, the source IP address is in the 10.0.0.0/24 range, thus the fourth rule matches and the 167772161 table is consulted. We can see that it contains a single entry, a default route. The message is then routed to 10.0.0.3 (The ‘sg’ device for the subnet) via that subnet’s local ‘qr’ device. Interestingly, this is the same device the message came in on. At this point, standard DVR east/west routing takes place and the message eventually finds itself in the SNAT namespace on the dvr_snat node, where it is routed out via the ‘qg’ / external device, right after SNAT iptables rules change the source IP from the VM to the ‘qg’ device IP.